Design and Synthesis the Next Generation Antibiotic from Dried Clove Leaves as an Alternative to Replace Penicillin
Irrational use of antibiotic could cause dangerous effects against human being. One in particular is the big problem of resistance of bacterial against present antibiotic. Penicillin which is a commonly used as an antibiotic drug and is being used since more than six decades. It has been proved to be an excellent and effective drug for bacterial infections. Present antibiotic such as penicillin has been known as a holy drug, now is not effective to cure infection of Staphylococcus, urinal infection, and gonorrhea. The main aim of this research was to develop new or novel compounds with potential as the next generation of antibiotic. Readily accessed natural products, in particular eugenol (1) which is easily isolated from the dried leaves of clove and could be used as a starting material for design and synthesis of these new or novel compounds. Eugenol has been reported to posses antioxidant and anticancer properties (Carrasco, et al., 2008). In an attempt to enhance intrinsic activity of this natural compound, design and synthesis of the new candidate antibiotic namely: novel cyclic sulfonic ester, cyclic isothiocyanate, and others will be discussed. Design of these novel compounds were analyzed based on retrosynthesis and the synthesis products were rapidly confirmed by GC-MS and nmr analyses. All derivatives studied showed antibacterial properties against Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus.
Carrasco H.A., Espinoza C., Cardile C., Gallardo W. Cardona L. Lombardo; K. Catalán M.; Cuellar F; Russo,A. Eugenol and its synthetic analogues inhibit cell growth of human cancer cells (Part I), J. Braz Chem Soc., 2008, Vol. 19 No. 3, 543 – 548.
I Made Sudarma, Ph. D. is Professor of Organic Chemistry at Faculty of Science the University of Mataram at Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. He serves as Dean Faculty of Science and Division Chief of Natural Products Chemistry. Sudarma received Bachelor’s from University of Mataram in Agronomy and Master’s degrees from University of Tasmania, Hobart-Australia, in Marine Natural Products Chemistry under the supervision Dr. A.J. Blackman and his Ph.D. from the University of Wollongong, New South Wales-Australia in Organic Chemistry under the supervision of Prof. John Bremner. During the last five years Dr. Sudarma has co-authored more than 15 peer-reviewed research articles and has authored four textbooks, with one more in preparation. His recent research activities include design and synthesis bioactive compounds such as antibiotic and pesticides from readily accessed natural products, in particular eugenol, papaverine, and aporphine. Dr. Sudarma is the recipient of several research grants from Indonesian Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI), prestigious research award including the Indonesian Toray Science Foundation (ITSF), and incentive on publishing of research articles and writing of books .